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Some thoughts of your typical data shepard / data groomer / data dance teacher sort of person.


Dynamic date variables using M (Power Query Formula Language)

Whilst working on developing some reports for our Service desk l was asked if we could just return a dataset containing the last 6 and 12 months of data.  This is the type of request l would normally use a TSQL script to resolve.  In this case one of the purposes of this project was to allow us to dog food both PowerBI and also self service BI more generally.

The challenge was quite simple find a way to filter data in a dataset based on specific datetime. to this with a specific date-time using the UI is very simple.  In Figure 1 below l will filter the column titled Issue_Created, which contains date-time values.


Figure 1 - The field 'Issue_created' selected showing the filter icon

From the list l can use this to filter by certain dates as shown below in Figure 2.  This lead me to wonder if it was possible to filter by date ranges.


Figure 2 - Filter by specific date

Below is a video showing how to filter records that either equal or occur after specific date, see Figure 3.

Figure 3 - Creating a filter to show record on or after a specific date.

Once l had set up the filter l then opened the 'Advanced Editor' to look at the M Code.   The code that does the filtering looks like this 

#"Filtered Rows1" = Table.SelectRows(#"Filtered Rows", each [Created] >= #datetime(2015, 7, 7, 5, 16, 52))

The syntax looked relatively simple and straightforward, one of the main challenges is that in the snippet above the datetime is static not dynamic.  At this point there was a tweak to the specification, my internal clients l have every faith in me :-).  What they required was based on today's date, get the first day of the month and then return first day of the month 6 months and 12 month before.  This is a pattern which l have done many times in TSQL, this was going to be a bit more of an adventure.

Long story short, after some experimenting l arrived at the following formulas

= Date.AddMonths(Date.StartOfMonth(DateTime.LocalNow()),-6)
First day of the month 6 months ago based on current date

= Date.AddMonths(Date.StartOfMonth(DateTime.LocalNow()),-12)
First day of the month 12 months ago based on current date.

Whats the next step?  Create a variable which will contain the DAX formulas that have created above.  The first step to open PowerBI desktop and go to 'Edit Queries', this will open the 'Query Editor' window.  In the 'Query Editor' window click on the 'New Source' button and select 'Blank Query' from the pull down list see Figure 4.


Figure 4 - Creating a new Blank Query to act as a parameter

Now the blank query has been created the next step is to name the parameter, the name that l use in the example is Previous_FDM_6Months.  Next l type in the DAX formula -> = Date.AddMonths(Date.StartOfMonth(DateTime.LocalNow()),-6).  Once thats done, then click the green tick to update and evaluate the parameter.


Figure 5 - Setting the parameter name and inserting the DAX formula

So now l have parameter which returns a datetime value based on current date and time.  The last step was to amend the part of the M code l had grabbed earlier to filter the dataset.  Below is the line from the M code l use in production

let
    Source = Sql.Database("A_Cloud_Database","Some_Data"),
    dbo_Some_Data = Source{[Schema="dbo",Item="SomeRandomData"]}[Data],
    #"Filtered_Rows_Last12_Months" = Table.SelectRows(dbo_Some_Data, each [Issue_Created] >= Previous_FDM_12Months),
    .........

The data is extracted from the database and filter only return data where the Issue_Created is equal to or greater than the datetime value returned by the parameter Previous_FDM_12Months.

A complete reference of all the datetime functions in power query lanague aka M can be found here https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/mt296608.aspx.  If you want to download a PowerBI desktop file with the functions you can download it here.


M (formally know as Power Query Formula Language), PowerBI and parameterising data sources - part two

In the previous post (see here) l set up the blank datasets as parameters storing the values of the database server and name.  Whilst attempting to create a suitable dataset to a report for an internal customer, l was frustrated that l could not do it using Power Query.  Yet on the other hand l know that l could write some TSQL that would give me the dataset l wanted very easily.  So l wondered if this was possible to combine the two?

So lets return to the SQL.Database function which has this very nice example
Sql.Database("localhost", "Northwind", [Query= select * from Customers]) The last setting is "Query as text - Provide a query text that is run on the server to return values". It's almost like someone thought it would be a good idea to allow a user to run a SQL query. A few minutes later l had the query l wanted to run and it looked something like this -:

DECLARE @IssueType AS VARCHAR(10) = 'Problem'; DECLARE @ClientName AS NVARCHAR(100) = 'RainbowPainters';
SELECT  DATEPART(MONTH, [Issue_Created]) AS Month_Number        ,DATENAME(MONTH, [Issue_Created]) AS Month_Name        ,DATENAME(YEAR, [Issue_Created]) AS Year_Name        ,COUNT(DATEPART(MONTH, [Issue_Created])) AS Total FROM    [dbo].[IssueData] AS ID WHERE   [Issue_type_name] = @IssueType         AND [ClientName] = @ClientName GROUP BY DATEPART(MONTH, [Issue_Created])        ,DATENAME(MONTH, [Issue_Created])        ,DATENAME(YEAR, [Issue_Created]);
Next when back to the dataset opened the 'Advanced Editor' and added the query, you can it in Figure 1 below

Figure 1 - Advanced Editor window with the new query in place

To make it a bit easier to read below is the actual text from the 'Advanced Editor' window above.  All that has been added is the text in red,and the query text which is in italics
let

Source = Sql.Database(DatabaseServer, DatabaseName
,[Query = "DECLARE @IssueType AS VARCHAR(10) = 'Problem'; DECLARE @ClientName AS NVARCHAR(100) = 'RainbowPainters'; SELECT  DATEPART(MONTH, [Issue_Created]) AS Month_Number        ,DATENAME(MONTH, [Issue_Created]) AS Month_Name        ,DATENAME(YEAR, [Issue_Created]) AS Year_Name        ,COUNT(DATEPART(MONTH, [Issue_Created])) AS Total FROM    [dbo].[IssueData] AS ID WHERE   [Issue_type_name] = @IssueType         AND [ClientName] = @ClientName GROUP BY DATEPART(MONTH, [Issue_Created])        ,DATENAME(MONTH, [Issue_Created])        ,DATENAME(YEAR, [Issue_Created]);" ]) in     Source

When l refreshed the dataset, the data appeared :-)  Job done?  No, as often happens one client gets something and then everybody wants why they have.  So l was asked if we could create the same set of reports for another customer.  There was two choices at this point, l could just change the hard code client name, or could l parameterise the client name.  Having heard this before l knew about passing parameters from excel to filter datasets see the following posts.

https://blog.oraylis.de/2013/05/using-dynamic-parameter-values-in-power-query-queries/
http://blog.crossjoin.co.uk/2015/11/24/using-parameter-tables-to-control-data-refresh-in-power-bi/

Having looked at the blog posts which declare and then used parameters this looked like a simple concept. Kudos to the Power BI team for that.  First step was to add additional dataset as a parameter.   So l now had three dataset as parameters, the latest one being 'ClientName', which stores the client name


Figure 2 - List of datasets containing parameters

So having looked at the blog posts above l realised that l just need to declare a query which would hold the query text and pass in the Client Name parameter to the query text.  Following some trial and error, l ended up with the query text below

let
pQuery =
"DECLARE @IssueType AS VARCHAR(10) = 'Problem';
DECLARE @ClientName AS NVARCHAR(100) = '" & ClientName & "';
SELECT  DATEPART(MONTH, [Issue_Created]) AS Month_Number
       ,DATENAME(MONTH, [Issue_Created]) AS Month_Name
       ,DATENAME(YEAR, [Issue_Created]) AS Year_Name
       ,COUNT(DATEPART(MONTH, [Issue_Created])) AS Total
FROM    [dbo].[IssueData] AS ID
WHERE   [Issue_type_name] = @IssueType
        AND [ClientName] = @ClientName
GROUP BY DATEPART(MONTH, [Issue_Created])
        ,DATENAME(MONTH, [Issue_Created])
        ,DATENAME(YEAR, [Issue_Created]);",
    Source = Sql.Database(DatabaseServer, DatabaseName,[Query=pQuery])

in

    Source


Figure 3 - showing the query text in the Advanced Editor Window

Much to my delight this syntax works as expected.  So l can now have a way that it is possible to specific parameters which can be passed to SQL server.  From reading about M (Power Query Formula Language) there's more to learn. For the moment l am happy with the new found knowledge, whilst l play with some of the other technologies offered by PowerBI.

The only downside is this only works in PowerBI Desktop :-( 


M (formally know as Power Query Formula Language), PowerBI and parameterising data sources - part one

One of the attractions of being a programmer was that l could find ways to make routine tasks easier and quicker.  As our company and clients have discovered the joy of Power BI also the reports l have created.  There are more clients are asking for reports.  Some of these are the same reports to ensure everyone has the same view of their data.

Scenario
There are two databases l populate with data, one of these is on my machine, the other is an Azure database.  As you would expect l use the local copy to test out various changes to the database.  Then using the Redgate tool SQL Compare l can script any changes and apply them to the Azure database.  It is possible to change the data source for each dataset easily using the following method.

From the main window, on the 'Home' tab click once on the 'Edit Queries' button see Figure 1



Figure 1 - showing the location of the 'Edit Queries' button

This will open the 'Edit Queries' window now to see where the data source for a selected dataset.  First select a dataset in the example shown in Figure 2, it is 'DimDate'.  Next click on the 'Advanced Editor' button see figure 2.


Figure 2 - Showing location of 'Advanced Editor' button

When the Advanced Editor window opens it will look something like the one shown in Figure 3 below.



Figure 3 - Advanced Editor window, with M (Power Query Formula Language) query showing the Database Server Name and Database Name

The syntax of the statement is relatively simple.  In this case we are looking at the Sql.Database data function, the syntax is simple and looks like this -:

Source = Sql.Database( "Name of Database Server", "Name Of Database")

This is the text shown in Figure 3

let
    Source = Sql.Database("localhost", "DBdata"),
    dbo_DimDate = Source{[Schema="dbo",Item="DimDate"]}[Data]
in
    dbo_DimDate

To change the data source to point at the Azure database the only changes that have to made are as follows

let
    Source = Sql.Database("AzureDatabase""DBdata"),
    dbo_DimDate = Source{[Schema="dbo",Item="DimDate"]}[Data]
in
    dbo_DimDate


Job done.  This was nice until you have to do it several times, and personally I got bored then wondered if there was a better way?  I am glad you asked if there is a better way let me show you.

Having seen some examples where the data source was an excel spreadsheet l was aware that it was possible to supply parameters to change the data source.  From one spreadsheet to another one.  
The first step is to set up the parameters.  Open the Query Editor window, click on the 'New Sources' button from the list click on 'Blank Query' (see Figure 4)


Figure 4 - Creating a new blank query

Figure 5 shows what the Query window will look like when it first opens.  Change the name of the query to 'DatabaseServer' then enter the name of the database serving into the text box.  Once you have entered the database server name, click once on the tick to save your changes.


Figure 5 - Show where to make changes to the new query that will store the connect parameter.

Having set up the DatabaseServer dataset (parameter value), repeat the process and create a DatabaseName dataset (parameter value).  Figure 6 shows what you query editor window would look like if you entered the same details shown in this example.


Figure 6 - Showing the two datasets in place containing the parameters, showing the completed 'DatabaseServer' dataset.

So you should now have two additional datasets -:

  * DatabaseServer - containing the value 'AzureDatabase' or the name of the database server you are going to connect to.
  * DatabaseName - containing the value 'DBData' or the name of the database you are going to connect to.

If we look at the advanced properties of the dataset 'DimDate' the data source would look like the one shown below.

let
    Source = Sql.Database("AzureDatabase""DBdata"),
    dbo_DimDate = Source{[Schema="dbo",Item="DimDate"]}[Data]
in
    dbo_DimDate


Next step is to replace the database server name and database name with the names of the Datasets that have just been set up.  So the data source will look like the one below.

 let
    Source = Sql.Database(DatabaseServer, DatabaseName),
    dbo_DimDate = Source{[Schema="dbo",Item="DimDate"]}[Data]
in
    dbo_DimDate

The advanced query window should look like the one show in figure 7 below.  When the data source is queried the values of 'DatabaseServer' and 'DatabaseName' are replaced by the values from the relevant dataset.  In this PowerBI desktop report l just replaced all the hard coded instances of the database server name and database name with the relevant parameter.  Which allows me to switch between two databases with the ease l wanted, only with PowerBI desktop :-(


Figure 7 - Showing the final M (Power Query Formula Language) text (data source)

If you click on this link you can download a copy of a .PBIX with the two dataset's shown above.  

There is more you can do with this you will need to wait till part two of this blog post for more details.